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Animal Models

Animal models have been used to address a variety of scientific questions, from basic science to the development and assessment of novel compounds, vaccines, or therapies.

Animal research is conducted in compliance with regulatory provisions which cover the inspection and licensing of animal premises, the training and competence of all personal designing projects, performing animal procedures and taking care of animals and the mandatory authorization of every project by a competent authority upon ethical evaluation by an Animal Ethics Committee.

Long Evans (LE) Rat

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Also known as the, Black-Hooded or Hooded rat
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Used for neurological, toxicological and ophthalmologic studies
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Reported higher resistance to respiratory problems than outbred albino rats, making the Long Evans rat the preferred stock for surgical procedures requiring extended use of inhalant anesthetics.

Origin

The Long Evans outbred model was developed by Dr. Long and Dr. Evans in 1915 by intercrossing Wistar Institute white female rats to wild grey male rats.

Sprague Dawley® (SD) Rat

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Used in virtually all disciplines of biomedical research including toxicology and pharmacology
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Excellent reproductive performance makes the SD rat a good model for generating timed pregnant females
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Reported higher resistance to respiratory problems than outbred albino rats, making the Long Evans rat the preferred stock for surgical procedures requiring extended use of inhalant anesthetics.

Origin

The Sprague Dawley® outbred model was developed by Sprague Dawley, Inc.

Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rat

Non-competitive antagonists differ in that they bind to an allosteric site of the receptor so that the active site cannot be bound by any other compound. This non-competitive binding is not able to be overcome by increasing the dose of agonist present. Since the binding sites of the agonist and antagonist in this case are different, the agonist is unable to displace the antagonist on the receptor and the effect is irreversible. Irreversible antagonists form stable, covalent bonds with the receptors and the binding is permanent. This effectively destroys the receptor and cannot be overcome by washing or increasing ligand dose.

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Often used as the normotensive control for the SHR
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Males exhibit systolic blood pressures of 125 to 140 mmHg at 10 weeks of age
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 A partially inbred model (F10) which retains some residual heterozygosity

Origin

NIH received the Wistar Kyoto inbred/outbred model as an inbred from the Kyoto School of Medicine in 1971.

Black 6 (C57BL/6) Mouse

One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and it’s commonly used as the genetic background for transgenic mouse models. It is also the preferred model for studying diet-induced obesity and the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis.

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Popular research applications include oncology
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 immunology, metabolic disease, addiction and toxicology
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 C57BL/6NTac is the preferred C57BL/6 substrain for generation of genetically engineered models, including by the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC)
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 The Black 6 has superior reproductive performance compared to other B6 substrains: superovulated females yield a high number of embryos and males have higher sperm fertilization rates
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 The C57BL/6NTac has proven more amenable to the development of quality embryonic stem cells compared to other B6 substrains
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Popular strain for syngeneic tumor experiments; with a suite of related strains on the same background for mechanistic studies including Rag2, Rag2/OT-I, Rag2/OT-II and many more

Origin

The C57BL strain created by C.C. Little in the 1920’s gave rise to the C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 substrains sometime before 1937.

C57BL/10J Mouse

C57BL/10J is a substrain of C57BL, and shares a common origin with C57BL/6J, which is one of the most widely used inbred strains. C57BL/10J mice are a valuable immunological research tool. They have a high lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response, a good immune response to ovalbumin, a poor response to DNP-keyhole limpet haemocyanin and are resistant to induction of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (IgG1- and IgE- mediated). They are susceptible to immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity by ultraviolet light, highly susceptible to TNBS-induced colitis and moderately susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

Origin

The C57BL strain created by C.C. Little in the 1920’s gave rise to the C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 substrains sometime before 1937, and the C57BL/10J substrain was separated from other C57BL/10 substrains in 1947.

Swiss Webster (SW) Mouse

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Extensively used for decades as an all-purpose stock for research and drug safety testing
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Often used as recipient mother in transgenic labs due to its superior nurturing ability
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Swiss Webster females (SW-F) are also ideal pseudopregnant recipients for embryo transfers of black and agouti mouse lines

Origin

The original group of Swiss mice that served as progenitors of this stock consisted of two male and seven female albino mice derived from a non-inbred stock in the laboratory of Dr. de Coulon, Centre Anticancereux Romand, Lausanne, Switzerland. These animals were imported into the United States by Dr. Clara Lynch of the Rockefeller Institute in 1926. The Hauschka Ha/ICR stock was initiated in 1948 at the Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) in Philadelphia from “Swiss” mice of Rockefeller origin.

ICR scid (ICRSC) Mouse

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Equivalent to C.B-17 scids in severity of immunodeficiency, but this outbred background exhibits a significantly reduced incidence of spontaneous Ig production (leakiness)
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Gains weight faster than the C.B-17 scid which makes the ICR-scid better suited for ascites production from heterohybridomas and as a host for tumor lines
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Mice homozygous for the scid mutation lack both T and B cells due to a defect in V(D)J recombination. They easily accepts foreign tissue transplants, including human tumors, making them effective models for testing new cancer treatments. Scid mice are also useful for examining the relationship between immunity and disease.
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Genetic Background: ICR Background

Origin

The ICR scid spontaneous mutant model was developed by the Fox Chase Cancer Center by intercrossing ICR mice to C.B-17-SCID mice. The mice were then backcrossed two generations to a Icr:Ha(ICR) outbred background.

CD-1® IGS Mouse

  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Exhibits a significantly reduced incidence of spontaneous Ig production (leakiness)
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Gains weight faster than the C.B-17 scid which makes the ICR-scid better suited for ascites production from heterohybridomas and as a host for tumor lines
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 Mice homozygous for the scid mutation lack both T and B cells due to a defect in V(D)J recombination.
  • Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011 They easily accepts foreign tissue transplants, including human tumors, making them effective models for testing new cancer treatments. Scid mice are also useful for examining the relationship between immunity and disease.

Origin

The ICR scid spontaneous mutant model was developed by the Fox Chase Cancer Center by intercrossing ICR mice to C.B-17-SCID mice. The mice were then backcrossed two generations to a Icr:Ha(ICR) outbred background.

NOD scid gamma (NSG) Mice

Also Known As: NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull, NOD-scid IL2Rgnull, NSG, NOD scid gamma These mice are most often referred to using their branded name “NSG™” and are extremely immunodeficient. The mice carry two mutations on the NOD/ShiLtJ genetic background; severe combined immune deficiency (scid) and a complete null allele of the IL2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2rgnull). The scid mutation is in the DNA repair complex protein Prkdc and renders the mice B and T cell deficient. The IL2rgnull mutation prevents cytokine signaling through multiple receptors, leading to a deficiency in functional NK cells. The severe immunodeficiency allows the mice to be humanized by engraftment of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), patient derived xenografts (PDX), or adult stem cells and tissues. The immunodeficient NSG mice enable research in human immune function, infectious disease, diabetes, oncology, and stem cell biology.

Origin

These double mutant mice were produced by breeding female NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice with male mice bearing the X-linked B6.129S4-Il2rgtm1Wjl/J allele. The resulting male mice heterozygous for the Prkdcscid allele and hemizygous for the Il2rgtm1Wjl allele were crossed to female NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice for eight generations. Heterozygotes were interbred to produce mice homozygous for the Prkdcscid allele and homozygous (females) or hemizygous (males) for the Il2rgtm1Wjl allele.

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